The Camakam, hymns of the Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda appearing as the seventh prapataka of the fourth Anuvāka, refers to five divisions of land which is of interest. The Camaka passage, appears after the Sri Rudram, and addresses Rudra saying that the recieter is in possession of several requirements for worshipping him, like food, health etc. Among them it also lists five kinds of lands. They are
1) Land of Rocky boulders asmā ca me,
2) Fertile land that lends intself to cultivation mṛttikā ca me,
3) High land girayasya ca me,
4) Parvatah mountain,
1. Rocky Land
Asmā ca me, The land full of rocky boulders and shurbs will have thorny bushes and wild trees and called desert land. The inhabitants of these lands generally indulge in high way robbery and also cattle lifting. These rocky boulders crack during unbearable heat of sun's rays during summer. These are identical with what is called Pālai, desert lands in Tamil Literature.
2. Cultivable Land
Mṛttika is soil, most suited for cultivating paddy, vegetables and other grains, generally with good earth that could be ploughed. In all auspicious functions it is customary to bring from the river bed or anthills and use for sowing grains, Pālikai which sprout quickly as a symbol of fertility. This rite of bringing fertile earth, called Mṛt Sangrahana is performed in all marriage functions . Thus Mṛttika stands for fertile soil, cultivable land. It is called in Tamil Literature as Marutam. The people occupying such lands have settled life and are engaged in cultivation and the lands are also called Nādu.
3. High Land
The third mentioned in the Vedas, is Girayaḥ which according to Monier Williams, Sanskrit Dictionary, stands for elevated land (also called high land). The high land is generally used for gracing cattle by cowhereds/sheperds. It is called mettān kādu/mullai in Tamil.
4. Hilly Region
Parvatās, hill and its slopes are used by hill tribes called Kuṉṛavās who collect honey and hunt animals and birds. The hill and its slopes are called Kuruñci in Tamil Literature.
5. Sandy Land
Sikatā, sandy land generally referring to sea shores and rivere beds with sand. This land division is called Neiḍal in Tamil Literature.
It is important to note that the earliest Tamil grammer reffers to 5 kinds of land divisions called Kuruñci, Mullai, Marutam, Neiḍal and Pālai. The divisions are said to be presided over by kumāra, Kaṇṇaṉ, Indra, Varuṇa and Durga. It may be seen that all are Vedic gods.
First preciding deity of hill, according to Tolkāppiyar is Ceyon standing for Kumaran. I have already shown earlier that the word Muruka is derived from Mṛgaya a Sanskrit word for hunter. His illustirous mounts are peacock and elephant which are found in the hill. His food is Tinai Māvu and honey, hill products.
In sangam literature the legend of Kumāra's birth is detailed in Paripāḍal. Frequent references to Muruka as Ceyon and Kumāra is met with. His name as Subrahmaṇya is also derived from his associations with Vedic sacrifices. It is therefore evident that Kumāra/Ceyon is a Vedic god.
Tolkāppiyam refers to the presiding deity of Mullai as Māyon a term used to reffer to Vāsudeva Kṛṣṇa. He belongs to Yādavā class that is cowherds. Kṛṣṇā's identity with Viṣṇu of Vedas is well attested by inscriptions assignable to 2nd cent BCE of Sātavāhanās found in Mahārāṣtra. So Māyon is also a Vedic deity.
Marutam mentioned in Tolkāppiyam is said to be presided by Indra. Indra who killed Vṛttāsura and brought down rain and rivers for irrigating the lands to make them fertile is held as the presiding deity of the cultivable lands or agricultural lands with settled life. So Indra became the presiding deity of Marutam. It is too well known that Indra is a Vedic god.
Varuṇa the other Vedic god of both rivers and occianic waters is the presding deity of the sandy land both sea shore and river beds. Varuṇa's role in Vedas is well known as Vedic god.
The desert land according to Tolkāppiyam is Durga who is also identified with Koṛṛavai again and again in Tamil Literature. The scorching Sun and cracking boulders with thorny bushes and wild trees show the underlying heat energy and it is the power of Agṇi fire that is called Durga in the Vedas.
Durga is a word in the Vedas to indicate the power of taking men through difficult path. The inhabitants of the dessert land live by highway robbery and cattle lifting.
It is interesting to mention that Sri Rudram of the Vedas reffer to the cultivators, hill tirbes, hunters, fishermen, and highway robbers and identified with the God Rudra Siva himself. There is no hierarchy of higher and lower caste among any of them as all of them are identical with god. Not only among the human beings but also all forms of living beings including animals, birds, reptiles, trees and plants which are born and sprout due to the existing life principle in them. This Yajur Vedic passage is specific on this points and identifies god with the Solar energy, the Surya.
None was considered as outsiders of Vedic civilization.
Thus the five fold division of the land, the presiding deities of these lands and the inhabitants of these sub divisions of land were mentioned in the Vedas as part of their culture in the Sata Rudriya and Camakam part of Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda.